The Forte Kreis: an Attempt to Spiritual Leadership over Europe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Just before the outbreak of World War 1, a group of writers, artists and philosophers decided to establish a spiritual rule over Europe, the Forte Kreis. The group aimed at a reconciliation in Europe, by establishing pacifism, but also between East and West by creating a new language. Their thoughts have been documented a several archives in Europe. By bringing them together, a picture emerges of a blend of elitist naiveté and prophetic foresight. The need for a supra-national spiritual guidance seems as as it was hundred years ago.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-53
Number of pages22
JournalReligion and Theology: A Journal of Contemporary Religous Discourse
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • spirituality
  • First World War


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