The ICD-11 classification of personality disorders: A European perspective on challenges and opportunities

Bo Bach, Ueli Kramer, Stephan Doering, Ester di Giacomo, Joost Hutsebaut, Andres Kaera, Chiara De Panfilis, Christian Schmahl, Michaela Swales, Svenja Taubner, Babette Renneberg*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)
269 Downloads (Pure)


The 11th revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes a fundamentally new approach to Personality Disorders (PD). ICD-11 is expected to be implemented first in European countries before other WHO member states. The present paper provides an overview of this new ICD-11 model including PD severity classification, trait domain specifiers, and the additional borderline pattern specifier. We discuss the perceived challenges and opportunities of using the ICD-11 approach with particular focus on its continuity and discontinuity with familiar PD categories such as avoidant PD and narcissistic PD. The advent of the ICD-11 PD classification involves major changes for health care workers, researchers, administrators, and service providers as well as patients and families involved. The anticipated challenges and opportunities are put forward in terms of specific unanswered questions. It is our hope that these questions will stimulate further research and discussion among researchers and clinicians in the coming years.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12
JournalBorderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • ICD-11
  • Avoidant personality disorder
  • Borderline personality disorder
  • Narcissistic personality disorder
  • Classification
  • Diagnosis
  • Personality trait
  • Severity
  • TIME


Dive into the research topics of 'The ICD-11 classification of personality disorders: A European perspective on challenges and opportunities'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this