The interrelationship between income, health and employment status

K Stronks*, H VandeMheen, J VandenBos, JP Mackenbach

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background. 

The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the relatively strong association between income and health, compared to that between education/occupation and health, can partly be interpreted in terms of an association between employment status and health.

Methods. 

Health indicators used were the prevalence of one or more chronic conditions, and perceived general health. Data were generated from a postal survey, part of the baseline data collection of a Dutch prospective cohort study on socioeconomic inequalities in health.

Results. 

After controlling for differences in other socioeconomic indicators, the association between income and health was found to be stronger than that between occupation or education and health. Most of the difference in strength was found to be due to employment status, especially among men. Controlling for employment status, and controlling for the distribution of those with a long-term work disability in particular, reduced the risks of lower income groups, whereas the risks of lower educational and occupational groups hardly changed.

Conclusions. 

These results suggest that the relatively strong association between income and health can for a large part be interpreted in terms of an interrelationship between employment status, income and health. More specifically, it is largely due to the concentration of the long-term disabled in lower income groups. This indicates the importance of the selection mechanism, as these groups are excluded from paid employment because of their health status, leading to a lowering of income. However, income was still found to be related to perceived general health after controlling for employment status, especially among women. This suggests that an explanation in terms of an effect of material factors on health may also be important.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)592-600
JournalInternational Journal of Epidemiology
Volume26
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • socioeconomic inequalities in health
  • income
  • employment status
  • SOCIAL-CLASS
  • SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS
  • ILL-HEALTH
  • MORTALITY
  • INEQUALITIES
  • UNEMPLOYMENT
  • EDUCATION

Cite this

Stronks, K ; VandeMheen, H ; VandenBos, J ; Mackenbach, JP. / The interrelationship between income, health and employment status. In: International Journal of Epidemiology. 1997 ; Vol. 26, No. 3. pp. 592-600.
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The interrelationship between income, health and employment status. / Stronks, K; VandeMheen, H; VandenBos, J; Mackenbach, JP.

In: International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1997, p. 592-600.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The interrelationship between income, health and employment status

AU - Stronks, K

AU - VandeMheen, H

AU - VandenBos, J

AU - Mackenbach, JP

PY - 1997

Y1 - 1997

N2 - Background. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the relatively strong association between income and health, compared to that between education/occupation and health, can partly be interpreted in terms of an association between employment status and health.Methods. Health indicators used were the prevalence of one or more chronic conditions, and perceived general health. Data were generated from a postal survey, part of the baseline data collection of a Dutch prospective cohort study on socioeconomic inequalities in health.Results. After controlling for differences in other socioeconomic indicators, the association between income and health was found to be stronger than that between occupation or education and health. Most of the difference in strength was found to be due to employment status, especially among men. Controlling for employment status, and controlling for the distribution of those with a long-term work disability in particular, reduced the risks of lower income groups, whereas the risks of lower educational and occupational groups hardly changed.Conclusions. These results suggest that the relatively strong association between income and health can for a large part be interpreted in terms of an interrelationship between employment status, income and health. More specifically, it is largely due to the concentration of the long-term disabled in lower income groups. This indicates the importance of the selection mechanism, as these groups are excluded from paid employment because of their health status, leading to a lowering of income. However, income was still found to be related to perceived general health after controlling for employment status, especially among women. This suggests that an explanation in terms of an effect of material factors on health may also be important.

AB - Background. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the relatively strong association between income and health, compared to that between education/occupation and health, can partly be interpreted in terms of an association between employment status and health.Methods. Health indicators used were the prevalence of one or more chronic conditions, and perceived general health. Data were generated from a postal survey, part of the baseline data collection of a Dutch prospective cohort study on socioeconomic inequalities in health.Results. After controlling for differences in other socioeconomic indicators, the association between income and health was found to be stronger than that between occupation or education and health. Most of the difference in strength was found to be due to employment status, especially among men. Controlling for employment status, and controlling for the distribution of those with a long-term work disability in particular, reduced the risks of lower income groups, whereas the risks of lower educational and occupational groups hardly changed.Conclusions. These results suggest that the relatively strong association between income and health can for a large part be interpreted in terms of an interrelationship between employment status, income and health. More specifically, it is largely due to the concentration of the long-term disabled in lower income groups. This indicates the importance of the selection mechanism, as these groups are excluded from paid employment because of their health status, leading to a lowering of income. However, income was still found to be related to perceived general health after controlling for employment status, especially among women. This suggests that an explanation in terms of an effect of material factors on health may also be important.

KW - socioeconomic inequalities in health

KW - income

KW - employment status

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KW - SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS

KW - ILL-HEALTH

KW - MORTALITY

KW - INEQUALITIES

KW - UNEMPLOYMENT

KW - EDUCATION

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DO - 10.1093/ije/26.3.592

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SP - 592

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JO - International Journal of Epidemiology

JF - International Journal of Epidemiology

SN - 0300-5771

IS - 3

ER -