The multidimensional nature of adult social inhibition: Inhibition, sensitivity and withdrawal facets of the SIQ15

J. Denollet*, S.N.C. Duijndam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background: 

Social inhibition may promote emotional problems in children, but little is known about this disposition in adults. Our research builds on a theory-based model to suggest that adult social inhibition involves distinct behavioral (inhibition), cognitive (sensitivity), and affective (withdrawal) characteristics.

Methods: 

A total of 1385 adults completed measures of social inhibition, emotional distress, and social stress. Factor analyses, reliability estimates and regression analyses were used to examine the robustness of our model, and the validity of the 15-item Social Inhibition Questionnaire (SIQ15).

Results: 

In Study 1 (N=1180; M-age 46.9 years; 52% women), factor analysis confirmed that behavioral inhibition, interpersonal sensitivity, and social withdrawal reflected distinct facets of social inhibition. Next, we developed the SIQ15 that covers these facets with 5 items each; e.g. has difficulty making contact; expects negative reactions from others; keeps others at a distance. Study 2 (N=209; M-age 20.3 years; 77% women) showed that the SIQ15 and its 5-item Inhibition, Sensitivity and Withdrawal facet scales were internally consistent (Cronbach's a between 0.86/0.94) and stable over time (test-retest between r=0.73/0.78). The SIQ15 facets differentially predicted related inhibition (Behavioral Inhibition Scale), rumination (Penn State Worry Questionnaire) and withdrawal (Personality Inventory for DSM-5) scores at 6 months follow-up. Younger age and having no partner were associated with more social inhibition.

Limitations: 

Findings are based on self-report; experimental and prospective studies are needed to further validate our inhibition model.

Conclusions:

Inhibition, sensitivity, and withdrawal are distinct manifestations of adult social inhibition that can be reliably assessed with the SIQ15. Research needs to examine how this multidimensional nature of social inhibition has an effect on stress, health, and wellbeing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)569-579
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume245
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Fingerprint

Statistical Factor Analysis
Self Report
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • ANXIETY DISORDER
  • BEHAVIORAL-INHIBITION
  • D PERSONALITY
  • EMOTIONAL RESPONSES
  • EVALUATIVE THREAT
  • Health outcomes
  • INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES
  • INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY
  • Internalizing problems
  • NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY
  • Personality
  • STRESS
  • SiQ15
  • Social inhibition
  • TEMPERAMENT

Cite this

@article{51f88da9ff904ec6a0618e533da383b7,
title = "The multidimensional nature of adult social inhibition: Inhibition, sensitivity and withdrawal facets of the SIQ15",
abstract = "Background: Social inhibition may promote emotional problems in children, but little is known about this disposition in adults. Our research builds on a theory-based model to suggest that adult social inhibition involves distinct behavioral (inhibition), cognitive (sensitivity), and affective (withdrawal) characteristics.Methods: A total of 1385 adults completed measures of social inhibition, emotional distress, and social stress. Factor analyses, reliability estimates and regression analyses were used to examine the robustness of our model, and the validity of the 15-item Social Inhibition Questionnaire (SIQ15).Results: In Study 1 (N=1180; M-age 46.9 years; 52{\%} women), factor analysis confirmed that behavioral inhibition, interpersonal sensitivity, and social withdrawal reflected distinct facets of social inhibition. Next, we developed the SIQ15 that covers these facets with 5 items each; e.g. has difficulty making contact; expects negative reactions from others; keeps others at a distance. Study 2 (N=209; M-age 20.3 years; 77{\%} women) showed that the SIQ15 and its 5-item Inhibition, Sensitivity and Withdrawal facet scales were internally consistent (Cronbach's a between 0.86/0.94) and stable over time (test-retest between r=0.73/0.78). The SIQ15 facets differentially predicted related inhibition (Behavioral Inhibition Scale), rumination (Penn State Worry Questionnaire) and withdrawal (Personality Inventory for DSM-5) scores at 6 months follow-up. Younger age and having no partner were associated with more social inhibition.Limitations: Findings are based on self-report; experimental and prospective studies are needed to further validate our inhibition model.Conclusions:Inhibition, sensitivity, and withdrawal are distinct manifestations of adult social inhibition that can be reliably assessed with the SIQ15. Research needs to examine how this multidimensional nature of social inhibition has an effect on stress, health, and wellbeing.",
keywords = "ANXIETY DISORDER, BEHAVIORAL-INHIBITION, D PERSONALITY, EMOTIONAL RESPONSES, EVALUATIVE THREAT, Health outcomes, INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES, INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY, Internalizing problems, NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY, Personality, STRESS, SiQ15, Social inhibition, TEMPERAMENT",
author = "J. Denollet and S.N.C. Duijndam",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.jad.2018.11.035",
language = "English",
volume = "245",
pages = "569--579",
journal = "Journal of Affective Disorders",
issn = "0165-0327",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

The multidimensional nature of adult social inhibition: Inhibition, sensitivity and withdrawal facets of the SIQ15. / Denollet, J.; Duijndam, S.N.C.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 245, 2019, p. 569-579.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The multidimensional nature of adult social inhibition: Inhibition, sensitivity and withdrawal facets of the SIQ15

AU - Denollet, J.

AU - Duijndam, S.N.C.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Background: Social inhibition may promote emotional problems in children, but little is known about this disposition in adults. Our research builds on a theory-based model to suggest that adult social inhibition involves distinct behavioral (inhibition), cognitive (sensitivity), and affective (withdrawal) characteristics.Methods: A total of 1385 adults completed measures of social inhibition, emotional distress, and social stress. Factor analyses, reliability estimates and regression analyses were used to examine the robustness of our model, and the validity of the 15-item Social Inhibition Questionnaire (SIQ15).Results: In Study 1 (N=1180; M-age 46.9 years; 52% women), factor analysis confirmed that behavioral inhibition, interpersonal sensitivity, and social withdrawal reflected distinct facets of social inhibition. Next, we developed the SIQ15 that covers these facets with 5 items each; e.g. has difficulty making contact; expects negative reactions from others; keeps others at a distance. Study 2 (N=209; M-age 20.3 years; 77% women) showed that the SIQ15 and its 5-item Inhibition, Sensitivity and Withdrawal facet scales were internally consistent (Cronbach's a between 0.86/0.94) and stable over time (test-retest between r=0.73/0.78). The SIQ15 facets differentially predicted related inhibition (Behavioral Inhibition Scale), rumination (Penn State Worry Questionnaire) and withdrawal (Personality Inventory for DSM-5) scores at 6 months follow-up. Younger age and having no partner were associated with more social inhibition.Limitations: Findings are based on self-report; experimental and prospective studies are needed to further validate our inhibition model.Conclusions:Inhibition, sensitivity, and withdrawal are distinct manifestations of adult social inhibition that can be reliably assessed with the SIQ15. Research needs to examine how this multidimensional nature of social inhibition has an effect on stress, health, and wellbeing.

AB - Background: Social inhibition may promote emotional problems in children, but little is known about this disposition in adults. Our research builds on a theory-based model to suggest that adult social inhibition involves distinct behavioral (inhibition), cognitive (sensitivity), and affective (withdrawal) characteristics.Methods: A total of 1385 adults completed measures of social inhibition, emotional distress, and social stress. Factor analyses, reliability estimates and regression analyses were used to examine the robustness of our model, and the validity of the 15-item Social Inhibition Questionnaire (SIQ15).Results: In Study 1 (N=1180; M-age 46.9 years; 52% women), factor analysis confirmed that behavioral inhibition, interpersonal sensitivity, and social withdrawal reflected distinct facets of social inhibition. Next, we developed the SIQ15 that covers these facets with 5 items each; e.g. has difficulty making contact; expects negative reactions from others; keeps others at a distance. Study 2 (N=209; M-age 20.3 years; 77% women) showed that the SIQ15 and its 5-item Inhibition, Sensitivity and Withdrawal facet scales were internally consistent (Cronbach's a between 0.86/0.94) and stable over time (test-retest between r=0.73/0.78). The SIQ15 facets differentially predicted related inhibition (Behavioral Inhibition Scale), rumination (Penn State Worry Questionnaire) and withdrawal (Personality Inventory for DSM-5) scores at 6 months follow-up. Younger age and having no partner were associated with more social inhibition.Limitations: Findings are based on self-report; experimental and prospective studies are needed to further validate our inhibition model.Conclusions:Inhibition, sensitivity, and withdrawal are distinct manifestations of adult social inhibition that can be reliably assessed with the SIQ15. Research needs to examine how this multidimensional nature of social inhibition has an effect on stress, health, and wellbeing.

KW - ANXIETY DISORDER

KW - BEHAVIORAL-INHIBITION

KW - D PERSONALITY

KW - EMOTIONAL RESPONSES

KW - EVALUATIVE THREAT

KW - Health outcomes

KW - INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES

KW - INTERPERSONAL SENSITIVITY

KW - Internalizing problems

KW - NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY

KW - Personality

KW - STRESS

KW - SiQ15

KW - Social inhibition

KW - TEMPERAMENT

U2 - 10.1016/j.jad.2018.11.035

DO - 10.1016/j.jad.2018.11.035

M3 - Article

VL - 245

SP - 569

EP - 579

JO - Journal of Affective Disorders

JF - Journal of Affective Disorders

SN - 0165-0327

ER -