The ordinal effects of ostracism: A meta-analysis of 120 cyberball studies

C.H.J. Hartgerink, I. van Beest, J.M. Wicherts, K.D. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

358 Citations (Scopus)
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We examined 120 Cyberball studies (N = 11,869) to determine the effect size of ostracism and conditions under which the effect may be reversed, eliminated, or small. Our analyses showed that (1) the average ostracism effect is large (d > |1.4|) and (2) generalizes across structural aspects (number of players, ostracism duration, number of tosses, type of needs scale), sampling aspects (gender, age, country), and types of dependent measure (interpersonal, intrapersonal, fundamental needs). Further, we test Williams’s (2009) proposition that the immediate impact of ostracism is resistant to moderation, but that moderation is more likely to be observed in delayed measures. Our findings suggest that (3) both first and last measures are susceptible to moderation and (4) time passed since being ostracized does not predict effect sizes of the last measure. Thus, support for this proposition is tenuous and we suggest modifications to the temporal need-threat model of ostracism.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)UNSP e0127002
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2015


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