The relationship between parenting stress and parent–child interaction with health outcomes in the youngest patients with type 1 diabetes (0–7 years)

A.M. Nieuwesteeg, E.E. Hartman, H.J. Aanstoot, H.J.A. van Bakel, W.H.M. Emons, E. van Mil, F. Pouwer

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Abstract

To test whether parenting stress and the quality of parent–child interaction were associated with glycemic control and quality of life (QoL) in young children (0–7 years) with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), we videotaped 77 families with a young child with T1DM during mealtime (including glucose monitoring and insulin administration). Parent–child interactions were scored with a specifically designed instrument. Questionnaires assessed general and disease-related parenting stress and (diabetes-specific (DS)) QoL. HbA1c (glycemic control) was extracted from the medical records. Both general and disease-related parenting stress were associated with a lower (DS)QoL (r ranged from −0.39 to −0.70, p < 0.05), but not with HbA1c levels. Furthermore, with regard to the parent–child interaction, emotional involvement of parents (r = 0.23, p < 0.05) and expressed discomfort of the child (r = 0.23, p < 0.05) were related to suboptimal HbA1c levels. There was no clear pattern in the correlations between parent–child interaction and (DS)QoL. Conclusion: The results support the notion that diabetes does not only affect the child with T1DM: T1DM is a family disease, as parenting factors (like stress and parent–child interactions) are associated with important child outcomes. Therefore, it is important for health-care providers to not only focus on the child with T1DM, but also on the family system. Keywords: Type 1 diabetes ,Parent–child interaction, Behavior, Children, Parents
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-338
JournalEuropean Journal of Pediatrics
Volume175
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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