The revised Multidimensional Model of MAori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE2)

C.A. Houkamau, C.G. Sibley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


We update and validate the revised Multidimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE2) by including a seventh Perceived Appearance subscale. The MMM-ICE2 is designed to assess the subjective experiences, efficacy and evaluation of different facets of identity for Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of an online Māori community sample (N = 276) supported the revised seven-factor model assessing Group Membership Evaluation, Cultural Efficacy and Active Identity Engagement, Interdependent Self-Concept, Spirituality, Socio-Political Consciousness, Authenticity Beliefs, and the new Perceived Appearance subscale. The Perceived Appearance subscale was internally reliable and predicted unique variation in perceived discrimination and mixed ethnic affiliation as both Māori and European when adjusting for the other MMM-ICE2 subscale scores. The MMM-ICE2 is a public domain, quantitative self-report measure for use in statistical models to predict and understand the outcomes and protective function of different aspects of identity for Māori.
Keywords: Māori, Psychometric, Identity, Self-report questionnaire, Scale development
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-296
JournalSocial Indicators Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015


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