The structure of teaching practices across countries: A combination of factor analysis and network analysis

Jessica Fischer, Jia He, Eckhard Klieme

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Teaching practices are pivotal for student learning. Due to pedagogical traditions and national cultures, the structure of teaching practices may differ across countries. This study investigates the structure of teaching practices across 12 countries grouped into four major linguistic/cultural clusters. First, factor analysis is applied to investigate if the theoretical distinction between teacher-directed and student-centred practices is generalizable across countries. Then, network analysis is used to explore how individual classroom assessment practices relate to either teacher-directed or student-centred practices. Main findings include that: (1) teacher-directed and student-centred practices are two distinct factors across countries; (2) the overall structure and connectivity of teaching practices differs across countries, with smaller differences within linguistic/cultural clusters; and (3) assessment practices with the aim to structure and guide learning strongly relate to teacher-directed practices, whereas assessment practices with the aim to individualize instruction more relate to student-centred practices. We discuss the global patterning and implications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100861
JournalStudies in Educational Evaluation
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020



  • Teaching practices
  • Classroom assessment
  • Factor analysis
  • Network analysis
  • PISA
  • Cross-cultural

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