Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance

Martin Lövdén, Yvonne Brehmer, Shu-chen Li, Ulman Lindenberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

123 Citations (Scopus)


Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9–12, 20–25, and 65–78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number141
JournalFrontiers in Human Neuroscience
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


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