This study compared Turkish ethnic minority groups in Bulgaria and the Netherlands by examining (a) differences in acculturation orientations (mainstream culture adoption and heritage culture maintenance) as well as psychological and sociocultural outcomes and (b) the relation of acculturation orientations and outcomes in a group that is involved in acculturation for a long term (Turkish-Bulgarian) as compared to a group that is more recently involved in acculturation (Turkish-Dutch). Participants were 391 Turkish adults (280 in Bulgaria and 111 in the Netherlands). Results showed that Turkish-Bulgarians were more strongly oriented toward their mainstream culture, whereas Turkish-Dutch showed a stronger orientation toward their Turkish heritage culture. Turkish-Bulgarians reported a lower degree of life satisfaction. A good fit was found for a multigroup path model in which mainstream culture adoption was related to life satisfaction for both groups in the same way. The more stigmatized Turkish-Bulgarian group was more focused on the mainstream culture than the less stigmatized Turkish-Dutch group, contrary to expectations. We conclude that extant acculturation models need to pay more systematic attention to local issues, such as the history of the immigrant group.
Dimitrova, R., Chasiotis, A., Bender, M., & van de Vijver, A. J. R. (2014). Turks in Bulgaria and the Netherlands: A comparative study of their acculturation orientations and outcomes. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 40, 76-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2014.01.001