Types of cross-cultural studies in cross-cultural psychology

F.J.R. van de Vijver

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientific


From a methodological perspective cross-cultural studies in psychology differ in three dimensions. First, cross-cultural psychological studies can be exploratory or test specific hypotheses. Second, some cross-cultural studies compare countries or ethnic groups while other cross-cultural studies relate specific characteristics of a country or ethnicity (e.g., socialization patterns or religiosity) to psychological variables. Third, studies can compare either constructs (e.g., do Chinese and Kenyans mean the same when they say that a person is intelligent?) or score levels (e.g., are Americans more extravert than Italians?). A classification of cross-cultural psychological studies, based on the three dimensions, is presented and examples are given.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOnline Readings in Psychology and Culture
EditorsW.J. Lonner, D.L. Dinnel, S.A. Hayes, D.N. Sattler
Place of PublicationBellingham, Washington USA
PublisherCenter for Cross-Cultural Research
Publication statusPublished - 2003

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