@techreport{f7518d14a5e94c69a5796f514489c246,

title = "Validation of Models: Statistical Techniques and Data Availability",

abstract = "This paper shows which statistical techniques can be used to validate simulation models, depending on which real-life data are available. Concerning this availability three situations are distinguished (i) no data, (ii) only output data, and (iii) both input and output data. In case (i) - no real data - the analysts can still experiment with the simulation model to obtain simulated data; such an experiment should be guided by the statistical theory on the design of experiments. In case (ii) - only output data - real and simulated output data can be compared through the well-known two-sample Student t statistic or certain other statistics. In case (iii) - input and output data - trace-driven simulation becomes possible, but validation should not proceed in the popular way (make a scatter plot with real and simulated outputs, fit a line, and test whether that line has unit slope and passes through the origin); alternative regression and bootstrap procedures are presented. Several case studies are summarized, to illustrate the three types of situations.",

keywords = "Statistical methods, simulation models",

author = "J.P.C. Kleijnen",

note = "Pagination: 9",

year = "1999",

language = "English",

volume = "1999-104",

series = "CentER Discussion Paper",

publisher = "Operations research",

type = "WorkingPaper",

institution = "Operations research",

}