Validation of the patient health questionnaire-9 for major depressive disorder in the occupational health setting

D. Volker, M.C. Zijlstra-Vlasveld, E.P M. Brouwers, W.A. Homans, W.H.M. Emons, C.M. van der Feltz-Cornelis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Purpose
Because of the increased risk of long-term sickness leave for employees with a major depressive disorder (MDD), it is important for occupational health professionals to recognize depression in a timely manner. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) has proven to be a reliable and valid instrument for screening MDD, but has not been validated in the occupational health setting. The aim of this study was to validate the PHQ-9 for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave by using the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as a gold standard.
Methods
Participants were recruited in collaboration with the occupational health service. The study sample consisted of 170 employees on sickness leave between 4 and 26 weeks who completed the PHQ-9 and were evaluated with the MINI by telephone. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, efficiency and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for all possible cut-off values. A receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was computed for PHQ-9 score versus the MINI. Results The optimal cut-off value of the PHQ-9 was 10. This resulted in a sensitivity of 86.1 % [95 % CI (69.7–94.8)] and a specificity of 78.4 % [95 % CI (70.2–84.8)]. Based on the ROC analysis, the area under the curve for the PHQ-9 was 0.90 [SE = 0.02; 95 % CI (0.85–0.94)].
Conclusion
The PHQ-9 shows good sensitivity and specificity as a screener for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave.
LanguageEnglish
Pages237-244
JournalJournal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Volume26
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

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Major Depressive Disorder
Occupational Health
Confidence Intervals
Occupational Health Services
Surveys and Questionnaires
Area Under Curve
Interviews
Depression

Cite this

@article{05064f0a590441cfac6ec1149fcfd1b2,
title = "Validation of the patient health questionnaire-9 for major depressive disorder in the occupational health setting",
abstract = "Purpose Because of the increased risk of long-term sickness leave for employees with a major depressive disorder (MDD), it is important for occupational health professionals to recognize depression in a timely manner. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) has proven to be a reliable and valid instrument for screening MDD, but has not been validated in the occupational health setting. The aim of this study was to validate the PHQ-9 for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave by using the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as a gold standard. Methods Participants were recruited in collaboration with the occupational health service. The study sample consisted of 170 employees on sickness leave between 4 and 26 weeks who completed the PHQ-9 and were evaluated with the MINI by telephone. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, efficiency and 95 {\%} confidence intervals (95 {\%} CIs) were calculated for all possible cut-off values. A receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was computed for PHQ-9 score versus the MINI. Results The optimal cut-off value of the PHQ-9 was 10. This resulted in a sensitivity of 86.1 {\%} [95 {\%} CI (69.7–94.8)] and a specificity of 78.4 {\%} [95 {\%} CI (70.2–84.8)]. Based on the ROC analysis, the area under the curve for the PHQ-9 was 0.90 [SE = 0.02; 95 {\%} CI (0.85–0.94)]. Conclusion The PHQ-9 shows good sensitivity and specificity as a screener for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave.",
author = "D. Volker and M.C. Zijlstra-Vlasveld and Brouwers, {E.P M.} and W.A. Homans and W.H.M. Emons and {van der Feltz-Cornelis}, C.M.",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1007/s10926-015-9607-0",
language = "English",
volume = "26",
pages = "237--244",
journal = "Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation",
issn = "1053-0487",
publisher = "Springer New York",
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}

Validation of the patient health questionnaire-9 for major depressive disorder in the occupational health setting. / Volker, D.; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M.C.; Brouwers, E.P M.; Homans, W.A.; Emons, W.H.M.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

In: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2016, p. 237-244.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Validation of the patient health questionnaire-9 for major depressive disorder in the occupational health setting

AU - Volker,D.

AU - Zijlstra-Vlasveld,M.C.

AU - Brouwers,E.P M.

AU - Homans,W.A.

AU - Emons,W.H.M.

AU - van der Feltz-Cornelis,C.M.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Purpose Because of the increased risk of long-term sickness leave for employees with a major depressive disorder (MDD), it is important for occupational health professionals to recognize depression in a timely manner. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) has proven to be a reliable and valid instrument for screening MDD, but has not been validated in the occupational health setting. The aim of this study was to validate the PHQ-9 for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave by using the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as a gold standard. Methods Participants were recruited in collaboration with the occupational health service. The study sample consisted of 170 employees on sickness leave between 4 and 26 weeks who completed the PHQ-9 and were evaluated with the MINI by telephone. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, efficiency and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for all possible cut-off values. A receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was computed for PHQ-9 score versus the MINI. Results The optimal cut-off value of the PHQ-9 was 10. This resulted in a sensitivity of 86.1 % [95 % CI (69.7–94.8)] and a specificity of 78.4 % [95 % CI (70.2–84.8)]. Based on the ROC analysis, the area under the curve for the PHQ-9 was 0.90 [SE = 0.02; 95 % CI (0.85–0.94)]. Conclusion The PHQ-9 shows good sensitivity and specificity as a screener for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave.

AB - Purpose Because of the increased risk of long-term sickness leave for employees with a major depressive disorder (MDD), it is important for occupational health professionals to recognize depression in a timely manner. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) has proven to be a reliable and valid instrument for screening MDD, but has not been validated in the occupational health setting. The aim of this study was to validate the PHQ-9 for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave by using the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as a gold standard. Methods Participants were recruited in collaboration with the occupational health service. The study sample consisted of 170 employees on sickness leave between 4 and 26 weeks who completed the PHQ-9 and were evaluated with the MINI by telephone. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, efficiency and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for all possible cut-off values. A receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was computed for PHQ-9 score versus the MINI. Results The optimal cut-off value of the PHQ-9 was 10. This resulted in a sensitivity of 86.1 % [95 % CI (69.7–94.8)] and a specificity of 78.4 % [95 % CI (70.2–84.8)]. Based on the ROC analysis, the area under the curve for the PHQ-9 was 0.90 [SE = 0.02; 95 % CI (0.85–0.94)]. Conclusion The PHQ-9 shows good sensitivity and specificity as a screener for MDD within a population of employees on sickness leave.

U2 - 10.1007/s10926-015-9607-0

DO - 10.1007/s10926-015-9607-0

M3 - Article

VL - 26

SP - 237

EP - 244

JO - Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation

T2 - Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation

JF - Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation

SN - 1053-0487

IS - 2

ER -