Subclinical anxiety symptoms are associated with risk of impaired mental and physical health status, ventricular tachyarrhythmias and mortality, in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). This study evaluates the validity of the brief and new 4-item Anxiety Scale (ANX4) and its predictive value in relation to health status 12-months post ICD implantation.
A total of 288 ICD patients completed the ANX4 questionnaire. Factor analysis was performed to assess the validity of the scale. In a subsample of N = 212 patients, regression analysis was performed to assess questionnaires' predictive value of health status at 12-months follow-up.
Analyses of the ANX4 revealed a one-factor structure with a high internal consistency (α = 0.894). The ANX4 correlated significantly with existing generic and disease specific measures of anxiety symptoms STAI-S (r = 0.62), GAD-7 (r = 0.58), HADS-A (r = 0.66) and ICD related concerns (ICDC) (r = 0.44). Baseline anxiety symptoms were associated with lower levels of physical (β = −0.276; p < .001) and mental (β = −0.551; p < .001) health status 12-months post ICD implantation, adjusting for demographic and clinical variables.
The 4-item ANX4 shows to be a valid measure of anxiety symptoms in ICD patients and predicts physical and mental health status up to 12 months follow-up. Further studies are warranted to replicate these findings, determine the cut-off score for clinical relevant symptoms, and whether the ANX4 can be used in other populations.
- Cardiovascular disease
- DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS
- HEALTH SURVEY
- Implantable cardioverter defibrillator