Violent recidivism and adverse childhood experiences in forensic psychiatric patients with impaired intellectual functioning

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Abstract

Accurate risk assessment and insight into which factors are associated with recidivism are essential for forensic correctional practice. Therefore, we investigated whether the Historical, Clinical, and Future–Revised (HKT-R [Historisch Klinisch Toekomst–Revised]) risk assessment instrument could predict violent recidivism over a 2-year follow-up period in forensic psychiatric patients with intelligence quotient (IQ) < 80. We refer to these patients as intellectually disabled (ID) and patients with IQ ≥ 80 as non-ID. Additionally, the associations of the 14 clinical HKT-R factors with ID versus non-ID group membership were investigated, as well as a possible moderating role of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in these associations. The final sample encompassed 748 forensic psychiatric patients (15.9% were patients with ID) who were unconditionally released from highly secured Dutch forensic psychiatric institutions between 2004 and 2014. The results showed that the HKT-R total score (AUC = 0.705, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.527, 0.882]) and the clinical domain (AUC = 0.733, 95% CI [0.579, 0.886]) had a large effect size for predictive validity for 2-year violent recidivism, while the future domain (AUC = 0.653, 95% CI [0.524, 0.781]) and the historical domain (AUC = 0.585, 95% CI [0.397, 0.772]) had a medium effect size for predictive validity for 2-year violent recidivism in ID patients. It was also found that lower levels of self-reliance and social skills were associated with ID, indicating that treatment should prioritize these skills. However, ACE was not associated with ID, nor did it moderate the associations of the clinical HKT-R factors with ID. This study contributes to the understanding of both risk assessment and treatment of forensic psychiatric patients with ID.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2023

Keywords

  • BEHAVIOR
  • DISABILITY
  • HEALTH
  • Historical-Clinical-Future Revised
  • JUVENILE-OFFENDERS
  • PEOPLE
  • PREVALENCE
  • PRISONERS
  • PROBATION
  • RISK-ASSESSMENT
  • TRAUMA
  • adverse childhood experiences
  • dynamic protective factors
  • dynamic risk factors
  • impaired intellectual functioning
  • violent recidivism

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