What motivates medical students to select medical studies: A systematic literature review

Sonu Goel, F. Angeli, Nonita Dhirar, Neetu Singla, Dirk Ruwaard

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Background:

There is a significant shortage of health workers across and within countries. It is of utmost importance to determine the factors that motivate students to opt for medical studies. The objective of this study is to group and review all the studies that investigated the motivational factors that underpin students' selection of medical study in recent years.

Methods:

The literature search was carried out by two researchers independently in PubMed, Google Scholar, Wiley and IndMED databases for articles published from year 2006 till 2016. A total of 38 combinations of MeSH words were used for search purpose. Studies related to medical students and interns have been included. The application of inclusion and exclusion criteria and PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic review led to the final selection of 24 articles.

Results:

The majority of the studies (n = 16; 66.6%) were from high-income countries followed by an equal number from upper-middle and lower-middle income countries (n = 4,16.7%). None of the studies were from low-income countries. All of the studies were cross-sectional in nature. The main motivating factors that emerged were scientific (interest in science / medicine, social interest and academia, flexible work hours and work independence), societal (prestige, job security, financial security) and humanitarian (serving the poor and under priviledged) in high-, upper-middle and lower-middle income countries, respectively. The findings were comparable to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory of motivation.

Conclusion:

This systematic review identifies the motivational factors influencing students to join medical studies in different parts of the globe. These factors vary per country depending on the level of income. This study offers cues to policy makers and educators to formulate policy in order to tackle the shortage of health workers, i.e. medical doctors. However, more research is needed to translate health policy into concrete and effective measures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16
JournalBMC Medical Education
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jan 2018

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medical student
income
shortage
social medicine
worker
job security
student
prestige
health
cross-sectional study
health policy
search engine
low income
exclusion
inclusion
educator
literature
science
Group

Keywords

  • Administrative Personnel
  • Career Choice
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data
  • Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data
  • Education, Medical
  • Humans
  • Motivation
  • Physicians
  • Students, Medical/psychology

Cite this

Goel, Sonu ; Angeli, F. ; Dhirar, Nonita ; Singla, Neetu ; Ruwaard, Dirk. / What motivates medical students to select medical studies : A systematic literature review. In: BMC Medical Education. 2018 ; Vol. 18, No. 1.
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title = "What motivates medical students to select medical studies: A systematic literature review",
abstract = "Background: There is a significant shortage of health workers across and within countries. It is of utmost importance to determine the factors that motivate students to opt for medical studies. The objective of this study is to group and review all the studies that investigated the motivational factors that underpin students' selection of medical study in recent years.Methods: The literature search was carried out by two researchers independently in PubMed, Google Scholar, Wiley and IndMED databases for articles published from year 2006 till 2016. A total of 38 combinations of MeSH words were used for search purpose. Studies related to medical students and interns have been included. The application of inclusion and exclusion criteria and PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic review led to the final selection of 24 articles.Results: The majority of the studies (n = 16; 66.6{\%}) were from high-income countries followed by an equal number from upper-middle and lower-middle income countries (n = 4,16.7{\%}). None of the studies were from low-income countries. All of the studies were cross-sectional in nature. The main motivating factors that emerged were scientific (interest in science / medicine, social interest and academia, flexible work hours and work independence), societal (prestige, job security, financial security) and humanitarian (serving the poor and under priviledged) in high-, upper-middle and lower-middle income countries, respectively. The findings were comparable to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory of motivation.Conclusion: This systematic review identifies the motivational factors influencing students to join medical studies in different parts of the globe. These factors vary per country depending on the level of income. This study offers cues to policy makers and educators to formulate policy in order to tackle the shortage of health workers, i.e. medical doctors. However, more research is needed to translate health policy into concrete and effective measures.",
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What motivates medical students to select medical studies : A systematic literature review. / Goel, Sonu; Angeli, F.; Dhirar, Nonita; Singla, Neetu; Ruwaard, Dirk.

In: BMC Medical Education, Vol. 18, No. 1, 16, 17.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - What motivates medical students to select medical studies

T2 - A systematic literature review

AU - Goel, Sonu

AU - Angeli, F.

AU - Dhirar, Nonita

AU - Singla, Neetu

AU - Ruwaard, Dirk

PY - 2018/1/17

Y1 - 2018/1/17

N2 - Background: There is a significant shortage of health workers across and within countries. It is of utmost importance to determine the factors that motivate students to opt for medical studies. The objective of this study is to group and review all the studies that investigated the motivational factors that underpin students' selection of medical study in recent years.Methods: The literature search was carried out by two researchers independently in PubMed, Google Scholar, Wiley and IndMED databases for articles published from year 2006 till 2016. A total of 38 combinations of MeSH words were used for search purpose. Studies related to medical students and interns have been included. The application of inclusion and exclusion criteria and PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic review led to the final selection of 24 articles.Results: The majority of the studies (n = 16; 66.6%) were from high-income countries followed by an equal number from upper-middle and lower-middle income countries (n = 4,16.7%). None of the studies were from low-income countries. All of the studies were cross-sectional in nature. The main motivating factors that emerged were scientific (interest in science / medicine, social interest and academia, flexible work hours and work independence), societal (prestige, job security, financial security) and humanitarian (serving the poor and under priviledged) in high-, upper-middle and lower-middle income countries, respectively. The findings were comparable to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory of motivation.Conclusion: This systematic review identifies the motivational factors influencing students to join medical studies in different parts of the globe. These factors vary per country depending on the level of income. This study offers cues to policy makers and educators to formulate policy in order to tackle the shortage of health workers, i.e. medical doctors. However, more research is needed to translate health policy into concrete and effective measures.

AB - Background: There is a significant shortage of health workers across and within countries. It is of utmost importance to determine the factors that motivate students to opt for medical studies. The objective of this study is to group and review all the studies that investigated the motivational factors that underpin students' selection of medical study in recent years.Methods: The literature search was carried out by two researchers independently in PubMed, Google Scholar, Wiley and IndMED databases for articles published from year 2006 till 2016. A total of 38 combinations of MeSH words were used for search purpose. Studies related to medical students and interns have been included. The application of inclusion and exclusion criteria and PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic review led to the final selection of 24 articles.Results: The majority of the studies (n = 16; 66.6%) were from high-income countries followed by an equal number from upper-middle and lower-middle income countries (n = 4,16.7%). None of the studies were from low-income countries. All of the studies were cross-sectional in nature. The main motivating factors that emerged were scientific (interest in science / medicine, social interest and academia, flexible work hours and work independence), societal (prestige, job security, financial security) and humanitarian (serving the poor and under priviledged) in high-, upper-middle and lower-middle income countries, respectively. The findings were comparable to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory of motivation.Conclusion: This systematic review identifies the motivational factors influencing students to join medical studies in different parts of the globe. These factors vary per country depending on the level of income. This study offers cues to policy makers and educators to formulate policy in order to tackle the shortage of health workers, i.e. medical doctors. However, more research is needed to translate health policy into concrete and effective measures.

KW - Administrative Personnel

KW - Career Choice

KW - Cross-Sectional Studies

KW - Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data

KW - Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data

KW - Education, Medical

KW - Humans

KW - Motivation

KW - Physicians

KW - Students, Medical/psychology

U2 - 10.1186/s12909-018-1123-4

DO - 10.1186/s12909-018-1123-4

M3 - Review article

VL - 18

JO - BMC Medical Education

JF - BMC Medical Education

SN - 1472-6920

IS - 1

M1 - 16

ER -