When envy leads to schadenfreude

N. van de Ven, C.E. Hoogland, R.H. Smith, W.W. van Dijk, S.M. Breugelmans, M. Zeelenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)
994 Downloads (Pure)


Previous research has yielded inconsistent findings concerning the relationship between envy and schadenfreude. Three studies examined whether the distinction between benign and malicious envy can resolve this inconsistency. We found that malicious envy is related to schadenfreude, while benign envy is not. This result held both in the Netherlands where benign and malicious envy are indicated by separate words (Study 1: Sample A, N = 139; Sample B, N = 150), and in the USA where a single word is used to denote both types (Study 2, N = 180; Study 3, N = 349). Moreover, the effect of malicious envy on schadenfreude was independent of other antecedents of schadenfreude (such as feelings of inferiority, disliking the target person, anger, and perceived deservedness). These findings improve our understanding of the antecedents of schadenfreude and help reconcile seemingly contradictory findings on the relationship between envy and schadenfreude.
Keywords: Envy, Malicious envy, Benign envy, Schadenfreude, Social comparison, Deservedness
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1007-1025
JournalCognition and Emotion
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2015


Dive into the research topics of 'When envy leads to schadenfreude'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this